Home How Did God Create Our 3D World?
What is the Soul Frank Lee May, 2007


Our world may be created by the interaction between bulk particles and a brane.


According to the string theory, we are confined in a brane, which is a sub-universe embedded in the higher dimensional bulk universe. Theologians have long suspected that God might live in a "higher dimensional space". Now, physicists have provided strong evidence for the existence of a 10D space in which our 3D world is embedded. Suppose God lives in the 10D space and our 3D world was created by God, all matter in our 3D world must originate from the bulk particles. Physical observations indicate that this may indeed be the case.

The Big Bang

Our 3D world was created about 13.7 billion years ago. It started with an extremely dense and hot state. In a tiny fraction of a second after its birth, our 3D world went through an inflation period (from 10-35 to 10-34 seconds) -- its size expanded rapidly, at a rate that might approach the speed of light.

After the end of the inflation period, the matter particles were generated. According to the charge symmetry, the generation of a particle should accompany the generation of its antiparticle. However, our world is obviously dominated by particles over their antiparticles. What caused this asymmetry? The Standard Model, which applies to ordinary particles, cannot provide a satisfactory answer to this question. In the Supersymmetric Standard Model, the particle-antiparticle symmetry can be violated. Namely, it is possible to generate asymmetrical numbers of particles and their antiparticles from superpartners (reference). As mentioned in a previous article, superpartners are possible constituents of the Kingdom of God.

The Inflation Period

In 1981, Alan Guth proposed an inflation model which can resolve several cosmic problems such as the horizon problem, flatness problem and magnetic monopole problem. It is now generally accepted by cosmologists that there was indeed an inflation period immediately after the birth of our 3D world. The question is: what caused the inflation?

A hypothetical particle called inflaton was proposed to explain the cause of the inflation. However, none of the ordinary particles (as given in the Standard Model) has the required characteristics for the inflaton. Therefore, the inflaton, if it does exist, must be an "exotic" particle such as a bulk particle. 

The Fine-Tuning

According to the string theory, the bulk universe may contain many branes, which can trap certain types of particles, such as the matter particles in our 3D world. By interacting with a brane, a bulk particle may decay into two or more particles. Its daughter particle may be another bulk particle (with closed string) or a brane particle (with open string) that cannot escape from the brane. Since branes may be constantly interacting with bulk particles, it is conceivable that some branes are not empty. They are likely to contain their elementary particles or simple particles similar to our atoms.  However, to form a complex 3D world like ours requires extremely delicate fine-tuning (reference):

  • If the strong nuclear force were slightly weaker, multi-proton nuclei would not hold together and hydrogen would be the only stable element in our 3D world. If it were slightly stronger, hydrogen would rapidly fuse into helium-2.
  • If the weak nuclear force were slightly larger, little or no helium would have been produced from the Big Bang. As a result, heavy elements such as carbon could not be made.
  • If the electromagnetic force between electrons and protons were changed, atoms and molecules would be significantly different.

The fine-tuning suggests the existence of a creator. In addition, the Big Bang is known to begin with a huge energy density. This fact alone points to a creator.

The Creation

More and more cosmologists and particle physicists are investigating the interaction between bulk particles and a brane, to see if the interaction can lead to the early events of our 3D world. This approach will eventually discover how God created our 3D world. If our 3D world was created by God living in the bulk space, He must have used bulk particles (what else?) to interact with our brane, producing ordinary particles that can form atoms, molecules and life in our 3D world.

At present, we do not know the detailed creation process yet. A possible scenario, as suggested by the bulk inflaton model, is as follows. First, God selected a special type of bulk particles, called inflatons, which have all required characteristics for the creation. He then used a large number of inflatons to bombard our brane, creating the initial dense and hot state (the Big Bang). The inflatons caused our brane to expand rapidly (the inflation period). At the same time, the brane induced the inflaton to decay into brane particles and possibly another bulk particle. The latter left the brane while the brane particles remain in our brane. The transformation of the inflaton into other types of particles ended the inflation period. 

The particles that remain in our brane include not only ordinary particles, but also the invisible dark matter and dark energy. These two types of invisible substance makes up about 95% of all matter in our 3D world. They play important roles in galaxy formation and brane expansion. It is unclear whether the inflaton alone is sufficient to produce all kinds of particles in our 3D world. Other types of bulk particles might be necessary to assist the creation.