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Diseases Muscular System Groups Structure

There are more than 600 muscles in the body, which together account for about 40 percent of a person's weight.

Most skeletal muscles have names that describe some feature of the muscle. Often several criteria are combined into one name. Associating the muscle's characteristics with its name will help you learn and remember them. The following are some terms relating to muscle features that are used in naming muscles.

  • Size: vastus (huge); maximus (large); longus (long); minimus (small); brevis (short).
  • Shape: deltoid (triangular); rhomboid (like a rhombus with equal and parallel sides); latissimus (wide); teres (round); trapezius (like a trapezoid, a four-sided figure with two sides parallel).
  • Direction of fibers: rectus (straight); transverse (across); oblique (diagonally); orbicularis (circular).
  • Location: pectoralis (chest); gluteus (buttock or rump); brachii (arm); supra- (above); infra- (below); sub- (under or beneath); lateralis (lateral).
  • Number of origins: biceps (two heads); triceps (three heads); quadriceps (four heads).
  • Origin and insertion: sternocleidomastoideus (origin on the sternum and clavicle, insertion on the mastoid process); brachioradialis (origin on the brachium or arm, insertion on the radius).
  • Action: abductor (to abduct a structure); adductor (to adduct a structure); flexor (to flex a structure); extensor (to extend a structure); levator (to lift or elevate a structure); masseter (a chewer).

The following describes some significant and obvious muscles arranged in groups according to location and/or function.

Muscles of the Head and Neck

Humans have well-developed muscles in the face that permit a large variety of facial expressions. Because the muscles are used to show surprise, disgust, anger, fear, and other emotions, they are an important means of nonverbal communication. Muscles of facial expression include frontalis, orbicularis oris, laris oculi, buccinator, and zygomaticus.These muscles of facial expressions are identified in the illustration below.

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There are four pairs of muscles that are responsible for chewing movements or mastication. All of these muscles connect to the mandible and they are some of the strongest muscles in the body. Two of the muscles, temporalis and masseter are identified in the illustration above.

There are numerous muscles associated with the throat, the hyoid bone and the vertebral column, only two of the more obvious and superficial neck muscles are identified in the illustration. They are sternocleidomastoid and trapezius.

Muscles of the Trunk

The muscles of the trunk include those that move the vertebral column, the muscles that form the thoracic and abdominal walls, and those that cover the pelvic outlet.

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The erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the vertebral column is a large muscle mass that extends from the sacrum to the skull. These muscles are primarily responsible for extending the vertebral column to maintain erect posture. The deep back muscles occupy the space between the spinous and transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae.

The muscles of the thoracic wall are involved primarily in the process of breathing. The intercostal muscles are located in spaces between the ribs. They contract during forced expiration. External intercostal muscles contract to elevate the ribs during the inspiration phase of breathing. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle that forms a partition between the thorax and the abdomen. It has three openings in it for structures that have to pass from the thorax to the abdomen.

The abdomen, unlike the thorax and pelvis, has no bony reinforcements or protection. The wall consists entirely of four muscle pairs, arranged in layers, and the fascia that envelops them. The abdominal wall muscles are identified in the illustration below.

The pelvic outlet is formed by two muscular sheets and their associated fascia.

Muscles of the Upper Extremity

The muscles of the upper extremity include those that attach the scapula to the thorax and generally move the scapula, those that attach the humerus to the scapula and generally move the arm, and those that are located in the arm or forearm that move the forearm, wrist, and hand. The illustration below shows some of the muscles of the upper extremity.

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Muscles that move the shoulder and arm include the trapezius and serratus anterior. The pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, and rotator cuff muscles connect to the humerus and move the arm.

The muscles that move the forearm are located along the humerus, which include the triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis. The 20 or more muscles that cause most wrist, hand, and finger movements are located along the forearm.

Muscles of the Lower Extremity

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The muscles that move the thigh have their origins on some part of the pelvic girdle and their insertions on the femur. The largest muscle mass belongs to the posterior group, the gluteal muscles, which, as a group, abduct the thigh. The iliopsoas, an anterior muscle, flexes the thigh. The muscles in the medial compartment adduct the thigh. The illustration below shows some of the muscles of the lower extremity.

Muscles that move the leg are located in the thigh region. The quadriceps femoris muscle group straightens the leg at the knee. The hamstrings are antagonists to the quadriceps femoris muscle group, which are used to flex the leg at the knee.

The muscles located in the leg that move the ankle and foot are divided into anterior, posterior, and lateral compartments. The tibialis anterior, which dorsiflexes the foot, is antagonistic to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which plantar flex the foot.

 

Source:

SEER's Training Website.