Home   >   Medicine   >   Physiology
Diseases Blood

The average human adult has more than 5 liters (6 quarts) of blood in his or her body. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to living cells and takes away their waste products. It also delivers immune cells to fight infections and contains platelets that can form a plug in a damaged blood vessel to prevent blood loss.

Through the circulatory system, blood adapts to the body's needs. When you are exercising, your heart pumps harder and faster to provide more blood and hence oxygen to your muscles. During an infection, the blood delivers more immune cells to the site of infection, where they accumulate to ward off harmful invaders.

All of these functions make blood a precious fluid. Each year in the USA, 30 million units of blood components are transfused to patients who need them. Blood is deemed so precious that is also called "red gold" because the cells and proteins it contains can be sold for more than the cost of the same weight in gold.

Blood contains cells, proteins, and sugars


If a test tube of blood is left to stand for half an hour, the blood separates into three layers as the denser components sink to the bottom of the tube and fluid remains at the top.

The straw-colored fluid that forms the top layer is called plasma and forms about 60% of blood. The middle white layer is composed of white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets, and the bottom red layer is the red blood cells (RBCs). These bottom two layers of cells form about 40% of the blood.

Plasma is mainly water, but it also contains many important substances such as proteins (albumin, clotting factors, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones), sugars (glucose), and fat particles.

All of the cells found in the blood come from bone marrow. They begin their life as stem cells, and they mature into three main types of cells -- RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.

Red blood cells transport oxygen

Every second, 2-3 million RBCs are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation. Also known as erythrocytes, RBCs are the most common type of cell found in the blood, with each cubic millimeter of blood containing 4-6 million cells. With a diameter of only 6 ┬Ám, RBCs are small enough to squeeze through the smallest blood vessels. They circulate around the body for up to 120 days, at which point the old or damaged RBCs are removed from the circulation by specialized cells (macrophages) in the spleen and liver.

In humans, as in all mammals, the mature RBC lacks a nucleus. This allows the cell more room to store hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein, enabling the RBC to transport more oxygen. RBCs are also biconcave in shape; this shape increases their surface area for the diffusion of oxygen across their surfaces. In non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds and fish, mature RBCs do have a nucleus.

If a patient has a low level of hemoglobin, a condition called anemia, they may appear pale because hemoglobin gives RBCs, and hence blood, their red color. They may also tire easily and feel short of breath because of the essential role of hemoglobin in transporting oxygen from the lungs to wherever it is needed around the body.

White blood cells are part of the immune response

There are three types of WBC -- lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes -- and three main types of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils). WBCs come in many different shapes and sizes. Some cells have nuclei with multiple lobes, whereas others contain one large, round nucleus. Some contain packets of granules in their cytoplasm and so are known as granulocytes.

Despite their differences in appearance, all of the various types of WBCs have a role in the immune response. They circulate in the blood until they receive a signal that a part of the body is damaged. Signals include interleukin 1 (IL-1), a molecule secreted by macrophages that contributes to the fever of infections, and histamine, which is released by circulating basophils and tissue mast cells, and contributes to allergic reactions. In response to these signals, the WBCs leave the blood vessel by squeezing through holes in the blood vessel wall. They migrate to the source of the signal and help begin the healing process.

Individuals who have low levels of WBCs may have more and worse infections. Depending upon which WBCs are missing, the patient is at risk for different types of infection. For example, macrophages are especially good at swallowing bacteria, and a deficiency in macrophages leads to recurrent bacterial infections. In contrast, T cells are particularly skilled in fighting viral infections, and a loss of their function results in an increased susceptibility to viral infections.

Platelets help blood to clot

Platelets are irregularly shaped fragments of cells that circulate in the blood until they are either activated to form a blood clot or are removed by the spleen. Thrombocytopenia is a condition of low levels of platelets and carries an increased risk of bleeding. Conversely, a high level of platelets (thrombocythemia) carries an increased risk of forming inappropriate blood clots. These could deprive essential organs such as the heart and brain, of their blood supply, causing heart attacks and strokes, respectively.

As with all the cells in the blood, platelets originate from stem cells in the bone marrow. The stem cells develop into platelet precursors (called megakaryocytes) that "shed" platelets into the bloodstream. There, platelets circulate for about 9 days. If they encounter damaged blood vessel walls during this time, they stick to the damaged area and are activated to form a blood clot. This plugs the hole. Otherwise, at the end of their life span they are removed from the circulation by the spleen. In a diverse number of diseases where the spleen is overactive, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, the spleen removes too many platelets, leading to increased bleeding.


Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens