|MoBio||The MAPK Signaling Pathway||Chapter 6|
The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways transduce a large variety of external signals, leading to a wide range of cellular responses, including growth, differentiation, inflammation and apoptosis. These pathways are characterized by the following general path:
Stimulus > MAPKKK > MAPKK > MAPK > Response
where MAPKK is the kinase of MAPK and MAPKKK is the kinase of MAPKK. In most cases, the MAPKKK is activated by small G proteins such as Ras, Rac and Rap1. However, it may also be activated by other enzymes.
In mammals, three major MAPK pathways have been identified: MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPK.
Pathway Diagrams - From Cell Signaling Technology