|MoBio||The Genetic Code||Chapter 3|
Protein synthesis is based on the sequence of mRNA, which is made up of nucleotides while proteins are made up of amino acids. There must be a specific relationship between the nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence. This relationship is the so called genetic code, which was deciphered by Marshall Nirenberg and his colleagues in early 1960s. One of their approaches is illustrated in Figure 3-E-2. It turns out that three nucleotides (a codon) code for one amino acid, as shown in the following figure.