MoBio Organization of Eukaryotic Cells Chapter 1

An eukaryotic cell contains organelles, which are defined as membrane-bound structures such as nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, peroxisomes, etc. Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles. The nucleus is the largest organelle in an eukaryotic cell. It is not part of the cytoplasm. By definition, cytoplasm is everything inside the plasma membrane except the nucleus.

For animal cells, the cell surface consists of the plasma membrane only, but plant cells have an additional layer called cell wall, which is made up of cellulose and other polymers.

(a)

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(b)

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Figure 1-A-4. These figures show the major organelles and other cell components of (a) a typical animal cell and (b) a typical eukaryotic plant cell. The plant cell has a cell wall, chloroplasts, plastids, and a central vacuole—structures not found in animal cells. Plant cells do not have lysosomes or centrosomes. [Source: OpenStax College]