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Rheumatoid Arthritis

 


Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovium (the lining of the joints), which often leads to destruction of articular cartilage and bone. The disease is caused by complex cell-cell interactions, resulting in the release of various cytokines such as TNFa, IL-1, RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kB ligand) and IL-17. These cytokines may damage articular cartilage and bone.

 

Review Articles:

 

Associated Genes

HLA-DRB1
Encodes major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1. The role of this protein in rheumatoid arthritis may not be related to binding and presentation of arthritogenic peptides because its crystal structure indicates that the susceptibility epitope residues face away from its antigen-bindig groove. Recent evidence suggests that it may be related to premature telomeric loss (reference).

TNF
Encodes tumor necrosis factor.

TNFR1
Encodes TNF receptor member 1A.

TNFR2
Encodes TNF receptor member 1B.

IFNG
Encodes Interferon gamma.

CTLA4
Encodes cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4.

IKBL
Encodes IkB-like protein.

MIF
Encodes macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

PTPRC (CD45)
Encodes protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C.